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26 January 2022 ( 31 views )
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RENOVATION of the AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY: ELECTRIC CARS

Elektrikli Arabanın Açıklaması

Elektrikli arabalar, elektrik enerjisini mekanik enerjiye çeviren bir motor vasıtasıyla hareket enerjisi elde eden arabalara verilen isimdir. Elektrikli araba, pillerde ve diğer enerji depolama cihazlarında depolanan elektriği de kullanan bir veya daha fazla elektrik motoru kullanılarak çalıştırılır. Elektrik motorları anlık tork verir, güçlü ve stabil hızlanma sağlar. Bu araçlarda akü genellikle aracın altına yerleştirilir ve bu da aracın yol tutuş ve viraj alma kabiliyetini artırır. Ayrıca çevrim sınırlamaları yoktur ve tüm güçlerini kesintisiz aktarabildikleri için yüksek ivmeli kabilelere sahiptirler. Özetle elektrikli otomobiller, benzin yerine aküde depolanan elektriği, içten yanmalı motor yerine de elektrik motorunu kullanan otomobillerdir. Bunlar alıştığımız arabalardan temel iki fark. Kalan parçaların çoğu ortak parçalardır.


Elektrikli Arabaların Yaygınlığı

1800'lü yıllardan itibaren elektrikli araçlar üretilse de son zamanlarda seri üretime yönelik yatırımlar hız kazandı. Verimliliği ve çevreye daha az zarar vermesiyle öne çıkan bu araçların geleceği temsil ettiğine dair bir algı var. Birçok firma bu nedenlerle elektrikli otomobil üretimine yatırım yapmaya başladı. Hatta bazı şirketler yıllardır seri üretim elektrikli otomobil modellerini piyasaya sürüyor. İçten yanmalı motorlara göre son derece üstün özelliklere sahip olan elektrik motorlarının seri üretiminin temel nedeni, batarya teknolojilerinin ve elektrik motorlarının gelişmesidir. Şasi üretimi şu anda pek çok firma için sorun değil. Elektrikli araç üretimi için, firmaların hızlı şarjlı ve uzun ömürlü pillere ve yüksek performanslı ve dayanıklı elektrik motorlarına ihtiyacı var. Son yıllarda yapılan ArGe yatırımları ile bu iki ana parçanın üretiminin kolaylaşması, birçok öngörüye rağmen elektrikli otomobillerin hayatımıza daha hızlı girmesine neden oldu.


Electric Motor

The electric engine is the device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Every electric engine comprises two primary parts: 

  • Stator: The nonrotating fixed part in rotary machines

  • Rotor/Armature: Rotating parts of machines

These two main parts have many components and they create a complex structure. One of the defining features of electric motors is the current they use. There are many subtypes of these motors, which are available in alternating current and direct current versions. Vehicle manufacturers are observed to use both AC and DC motors and there is no definite usage preference among them. Electric motors can be described as the heart of electric vehicles in this sense. These motors, which offer high torque values since they do not have a gear system, provide their performance continuously, not according to the gear. The history of electric motors also goes way back than expected. The first batterypowered electric motor was produced in 1984. In other words, it can be understood that the electric motors used in cars today are products that have been developed and improved for centuries.




Battery

The battery is an energy storage unit that is included in almost all 21stcentury technological products. When a simple definition of the battery is made, it is the source that stores electrical energy as chemical energy and can turn it back into electrical energy when it is commanded to be used with the necessary hardware devices. Batteries are used only for ignition in internal combustion cars but serve as fuel tanks for electric vehicles. For this, longlasting and rechargeable batteries that offer higher storage values are required. The ability of today's batteries to store energy is improving day by day. For better storage, different battery variants are tried to be produced. It continues to be developed using different chemical formulas and ingredients. A general definition is made with the term battery. The battery type used in electric vehicles is lithiumion. The reason for using these batteries is that they are the most efficient batteries today and their production costs are low. Considering their weight and the space they take, these batteries have a high energizing capacity. It also provides low energy losses during the conversion of high energy. So, it can be said that lithiumion batteries are one of the most effective factors in the production and use of electric cars today.


Comparison with Internal Combustion Cars


  • Environmental Awareness

The slogan of many companies producing electric vehicles is "zero carbon emissions". The reason for this is that electric cars do not generate waste while they are running, that is, the process of throwing out the waste generated as a result of the combustion of the part we know as the exhaust is not included in electric vehicles. This creates a perception that electric vehicles do not cause any harm to the environment. This situation is important for the marketing of companies. However, this is not the case. Most of the electrical energy stored in the batteries of electric vehicles is produced in thermal power plants. In addition, during the production of an electric vehicle, there is several times more environmentally harmful waste than a normal vehicle. The main reason for this is battery production. Despite all this, when looking from a broad perspective and considering the efficiency of electric cars, they are still much more environmentally friendly than internal combustion engines. With the widespread use of recyclable energy resources instead of thermal power plants, this ratio will increase even more.


  • Cost

Although electric vehicles have many advantages, the reason why they are not widely used today is their cost. Since it is a new technology, it takes time to create the production lines of these cars and to reduce their costs. For this reason, these highcost vehicles reach customers at high prices. Since many companies improve their production capabilities, more affordable models are on the market. However, due to the compelling competition in the car market, the prices offered by electric cars are still not at a level that can cope with normal cars. Therefore, although the use of electric cars has increased, there is still time for this transformation.

  • Safety

To examine the safe driving experience offered by electric cars, it should be evaluated that safety improvements are integrated into these cars. The electrical power of a car does not affect safety, except that the roadholding is more secure because the center of gravity is close to the ground. The main reason why electric cars are safer is that companies do not only consider this concept as a change in the working principle of the engine. Companies consider this as a renovation in the automobile industry. In this way, they started to offer many options such as autonomous driving, driving safety systems, and emergency warning systems in their cars. Electric cars do not only refer to the electric motor powered by the battery in this sense. On the contrary, it refers to the transformation of an industrial change and the production of more capable cars in every sense.


Statistics

It should be recognized that cars with internal combustion engines are still dominant in the market. They are superior in many ways, such as more affordable prices, short fuel filling times and accessibility, longrange, and the element of trust they create in customers. Despite this, it is seen that the world's largest car manufacturers invest in electric cars. Although the percentage of use of electric cars is low, this number is increasing day by day, which means that they will become dominant in the market after some time. Many estimates predict that electric cars will be used more in 10 years than cars with internal combustion engines. The emergence of many new manufacturers (such as Tesla) is evidence of the attractiveness of this newly formed and constantly developing market. When the regions with the highest car sales are examined, the market share of electric vehicles is 5.7% in China, 10% in Europe, and 2.2% in America. Although these rates seem low, when compared to 2015 data, it is observed that these rates increase between 5 and 10 times. Northern European countries are the leading countries that have an impact on the increase in this rate. The governments of these countries create incentives for the use of electric cars. It is even observed that the entry of cars with internal combustion engines into some parts of the country is prohibited. (Some streets of London as an example) The leader in the use of electric vehicles in Europe is Norway with 74.8%. Iceland has a 45% share right after it. The importance given to electric vehicles by Norway can be noticed here. The fact that Norway, which holds a significant portion of the world's oil, is leading this transformation is an indication that electric cars represent the future.


Çözüm

Elektrikli arabalar basit bir bakış açısıyla günümüz arabalarının çalışma prensibinde bir değişiklik olarak anlaşılabilir. Bununla birlikte, elektrikli otomobil konsepti büyük bir yenileme haline geldi. Geleceğin teknolojilerinin arabalara entegrasyonunu tetikleyen bu arabalar, bilim kurgu filmlerinde izlediğimiz arabaların üretiminin imkansız olmadığını kanıtladı. Üretim ve satın alınabilirlik imkanları tam olarak yeterli olmasa da teknolojinin ve geleceğin sunduğu imkanlar yadsınamaz. Bu sebeplerden dolayı bu yeni nesil arabaların yeni dünya düzeninde araba tanımının karşılığı olacağı söylenebilir.

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