Mesopotamia, which is included in historical sources as the Cradle of Civilizations, constitutes approximately 1/3 of the Middle East. The oldest civilizations in history were established in the area covering Kuwait, Jordan and Iran, except Iraq and Syria. In addition to these, there are Sumerians, Hittites, Akkadians. Pankuş Assembly is known as the first democratic assembly in the world and was established in the Mesopotamia region. The area where many civilizations took place throughout history is known as AlJazeera. Mesopotamia, on the other hand, refers to the region located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The lands in this area have been suitable for agriculture due to the influence of the river. Mesopotamia, which had very favorable climatic conditions, provided the foundations of many important civilizations such as the Hittites and Babylonians. There is no political or administrative region designated as Mesopotamia. Greek historians used such a name to name the region.
What Are the Characteristics of Mesopotamian Civilizations?
Mesopotamia has hosted many civilizations since the past. Some of these Civilizations are as follows:
Sumerians: The Sumerians, who provided the birth of civilization with the invention of writing, provided the establishment of the first weaving workshops in history. The Epic of Gilgamesh is the most famous epic of the Sumerians. In addition, many works written in the Sumerian period have survived to the present day.
Persian Empire: Founded in 312 BC, the Persian Empire is home to many dynasties, including the Safavid and Afshar Dynasties.
Akkadian Empire: King Sargun founded it in 2232 BC. It has a surface area of around 800 thousand kilometers. It is known as one of the largest states established in the Mesopotamian region.
Hittites: Hittites, also known as Etiler, are one of the most important civilizations established in Mesopotamia Region. Founded in 1500 BC, the Hittites dominated the region for an average of 450 years. The Pankuş Assembly, known as the first democratic assembly, was established in Hattusa, the capital of the Hittites. Kings have limited powers in the assembly, whose members are nobles. All citizens have the right to speak.
Mesopotamia with its Geographical Features
It lies between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers. It is also used for the lands between these two rivers. There is the Southeast Taurus Mountains in the north of Mesopotamia, the Zagros Mountains in the east, the Arabian and Syrian Desert in the west, and the Persian Gulf in the south. Composed of snowy mountains in the Eastern Anatolian Region and swelled with rain and snow waters in the Southeast Taurus Mountains, the Euphrates house converges in the Tigris Kurne area and approaches each other near Baghdad. The river, which was named Shattu'l Arap after its merger, empties into the sea from the Persian Gulf. Although the narrow strip of land is made up of rivers, it consists of desert on both sides. The lands brought by the Euphrates and Tigris by dragging are very fertile even though they are located in the south in the Mesopotamian area. Flat plains are located in the temperate and north of Mesopotamia and turn into plateaus with a fertile climate.