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26 January 2022 ( 11 views )
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Ibn Khaldun's Theory of "Revolutionary Phases of States"

İbn Haldun'un devlerin refleksif evreleri teorisi incelendiğinde, öncelikle bu teorinin felsefi düşünce ekseninde nasıl şekillendiği ve bu düşünce yapısının İbn Haldun tarafından devletler açısından nasıl incelendiği açıklanmalıdır. Döngüsel aşama anlayışı, tarihsel ve felsefi çalışmalar yapılırken kullanılan bir anlama biçimidir. Zamansal akışın lineer ilerlemesine karşı döngüsel bir yapının varlığı yönünde belirlemeler içerir. Bu anlayışa göre hayattaki birçok olgu belirli aşamaları tekrar ederek yoluna devam eder. Lineer anlayışta sürekli ileriye doğru bir hareket varken, döngüsel anlayışta bir şey sona erdiğinde bir başlangıcın olduğu felsefesi benimsenmiştir.

İbn Haldun bu anlayışı devlete uygulayarak bir teori oluşturmuştur. Devlet yapısını insan hayatına benzeten İbni Haldun, tıpkı insanlar gibi devletlerin de belirli süreçlerden geçtikten sonra hayatlarını sonlandırdıklarını, yani çöktüklerini ve yerlerine yeni devletlerin oluştuğunu savunur. Kurulu bir devlet belli aşamalardan geçer ve bu aşamalar devletin kuruluşu, egemenliğin kişileşmesi, refah dönemi, büyüme ve güçlenme dönemi ve çöküş dönemi olarak tanımlanır. son.

Devletlerin refleksif evreleri teorisi incelendiğinde, onun bu teoriye manevi ve dini değerler ekseninde bir perspektiften yaklaştığı görülmektedir. Devletlerin devamlılığı için ortaya koyduğu çözüm, aynı zamanda maneviyata dayalı bir çözümdür. İbn Haldun'un refleksif evreler teorisini şahsi fikirlerim açısından incelediğimde, devletlerin tarihleri ​​açısından tutarlı yönleri olduğunu söyleyebilirim. Devletlerin belirli aşamalardan sonra çökmesi ve yerlerine kurulan devletin bu aşamaları tekrar etmesi, birçok devletin tarihi incelenirken doğru bir tespit özelliğidir. Ancak Haldun'un buradaki bakış açısının İslami bir eksende olduğunu ve döngü teorisinin bu bağlamda İslami temeller doğrultusunda şekillendiğini düşünüyorum.

In terms of the elements that the theory deems necessary for the continuity of the states shaped around it, it should be explained what these mean in terms of terms. While explaining this element, Ibn Khaldun focused on a system based on spiritual ascension. However, this expression does not express an individual spiritual introversion. On the contrary, Haldun explains this with the logic of social union, which he calls asabiyya. The concept of asabiyya can be defined as the formation of will together in line with a purpose by acting with a bond of society. This concept is close to the concept of national will, which is still used today. Here, the difference of asabiyyah is shaped on the axis of religious foundations, while its closeness with the national will creates a common desire on the continuity of the states, that is, on the foundation and collapse.

The effects of Ibn Khaldun's thoughts on the continuity of the states on the last period of the Ottoman Empire are actually the result of the investigations in terms of preventing the collapse of the empire. Many thinkers of the period sought solutions with different ideas on what the empire, which was thought to be in the last step of the loop theory, could do to prevent this from happening. This theory of Ibn Khaldun is the product of a need in this context. There is the idea that the reason for the administrative and economic weakening of the Ottoman Empire and its eventual collapse is the existence of a society that moves away from spiritual values. Using the concepts of religion and justice together, Ibn Khaldun thinks that a religious union will be a solution to prevent the collapse of the state. The fact that many government officials and thinkers like him also put forward ideas in this direction resulted in the realization of radical religious moves in the last period of the Ottoman Empire. As a result, problems have arisen with many minority groups and there has been a social segregation. This situation resulted in many uprisings and nationalist and religiousbased rebellions within the empire, as it had a bad effect on the protection of minority rights rather than preventing the collapse of the state. However, Ibn Khaldun's theory and scientific understanding on the study of the state led to systematic changes in that period.

The concept of the circle of justice, on the other hand, basically refers to a system aiming at the continuity of the empire. The circle of justice, as a concept, puts justice in an important position and shows that it constitutes a basis in the administration of the state. According to this concept, belief in divine power, existence of a just judicial system together with a strong state administration and economic power constitute the justice circle of a state. Although an Islamicbased understanding is envisaged in this concept, there is a philosophical examination of the meaning of the word justice. With this concept, answers to the question of how justice can be provided are sought. As a matter of fact, this concept defines the Ottoman State's view of justice and the place of justice is determined in line with the continuity of the state. He argues that the ruler is protected by his presence, that this ruler must be in a strong leader position or he cannot provide justice, that the strengthening of economic power is important in the sense of this circle, and that sovereignty is achieved by the bond of the people to the just power. In this sense, the concept of the circle of justice seems to be very effective in the Ottoman Empire in terms of administrative, military and economic aspects. The belief that this system, which was established to ensure the continuity of the state, works has been adopted by thinkers and administrators.

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